CIS 112 Introduction to Robotics programming.


Unit one: Robot Simulation (Pegasus) – Basic Robot Operation: (71)


Student Learning Outcomes:
1. Define a robot and give an application
2. Describe three advantages of robots.
3. Describe five basic robot components
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the eight rules of robotic safety.
5. Describe six axes of a robot manipulator
6. Describe three types of jog applications
7. Describe the functions of four components of a servo robot axis
8. Describe the function of the homing procedure.
9. Describe the functions of two types of end effectors
10. List two types of gripper finger designs and describe their operation.
11. Describe the operation of five types of robot safety devices.

Important Points:
1. An automated machine can operate without need of a human to assist it.
2. A reprogrammable machine can be reprogrammed to perform its task in different ways.
3. A multitasking machine can be programmed to do entirely different tasks such as assembly or machine loading.
4. Six common robot applications: Assembly, Material handling, Welding, machine loading, painting, gluing.
5. Advantage of robots: Improve quality of life, Improve product quality, Reduce production costs.
6. Manipulator (arm) part that moves and reaches.
7. End Effector’s (hand) part that grasp parts or tools.
8. Controller is specialized computer that coordinates the robots movements.
9. Drives consist of electronic circuit cords that supply power to the robot arm’s motors.
10. Teach Pendant is hand held device that allows the robot operator to program and control a robot.

11. Safety Rules

11a. Remove all obstructions from the robot work area.
12. Check for signs of damage to the robot.
13. Remove loose fitting clothing (ties, scarves, sleves, etd).
14. Tie up long hair.
15. Remove the teach pendant from the robot work area
16. Locate the emergency stop pushbutton.
17. Ensure that safety glasses are worn by people in area.
18. Ensure that all people are outside the robot’s work area.
19. Robotic simulation Software Components:

20. Menu Bar: File, Objects, Tools, Views, Workspace, Help
21. File toolbar: tools for file manipulation – New button, Print button
22. Objects toolbar used to insert objects: Robot button, Add object button, Simple Object Button-simple geometric objects.
23. Tools toolbar:

24. Teach Pendant Button – displays teach pendant:
25. I/O interface button – displays the I/O interface
26. RTerm button – opens the PC programming software used to write program sequence files.
27. Robot Tip Coordinates Button – displays the coordinates of the robots gripper.
28. Coordinate Axis button toggles the display of the X, Y, and Z axes.
29. Pointer Button display of a pointer that show the grippers position on the X/Y plane.
30. Grid button – displays an 8x8 square grid on the x/y plane.
31. Views Toolbar: contain tools that allow you to view your layout in different ways.
32. Single view button - 3D – display the 3 dimensional view

33. Four view button - splits the screen in to four different views.
34. Equalize Views Button – makes each view pane the same size
35 Help Button:
36. Positioning Toolbar – manipulate view of your layout.
37. Select object button – select an object within robot layout.
38. Change viewpoint button – rotate the view of a layout with rotate tool.
39. Home position button – returns view to home position.
40. Set home position – resets home position to the current view position.
41. View all button – rings the entire layout into view.
42. Seek button selects the seek tol to select a new center of rotation.
43. Zoom thumbwheel – zoom in and out of the workspace.
44. Rotate Axis Thumbwheels.  – allow you to roatate view of the workspace on the x or y axis.
45. Display screen: upper line is status line lower line is menu line.
46 Emergency Stop Pushbutton – stop program and disable drives immediately.
47. Keypad – enter and display information about the robots operation.
48. F1-F4 function key are soft keys because they can have different functions.
49. Move down the menu tree – press any of the four function keys.
50. Move to a parallel menu – press scroll key
51. Move up the menu tree – press EXEC key.
52. Six axes of robot manipulator –

53 Body Axes - Waist, Shoulder, Elbow.

54. Wrist Axis - Pitch, Yaw, Roll

55. Jog – move arm manually under power.
56. Startup jog – move to central position
57. Teaching job – jog robot to position and record the position.
58. Shut Down – position where it will not hit obstacles if it relaxes it arm.
59. [EXEC] – return to main menu.

60. End of travel errors – when robot axis moves as far as it can physically, it will runt into a hard stop, disabling the motors and error message (FERR)
61. Recovering from FERR message. [Enter], [F1]STA, [F2]ENA, [SEl], jog axis away from position.

62. Servo Motor is an electric motor that is connected by its shaft to the robot’s mechanical structure.

63. Encoder is an electronic device attached to the shaft of the servo motor and allows the robot controller to continuously monitor the position of the servo motors.
64. Mechanical Structure includes the gears, chains, and bearings, as well as the physical structure itself.
65.Home Position Sensor are used to reset (0 the encoder) the encoder values stored in the robot controller whenever the robot is homed. 

66. Homing procedure is an automatic procedure that moves each robot axis to a position where a home position sensor is actuated. Set each encoder position to 0.

67. Always jog the arm to a position where it will not hit anything when it goes into the homing procedure.

68.End of Arm (EOA) allows the robot a more active role by enabling the robot to perform work on an object.
69. Grippers are the most common type of robotic end effectors. Can hold or grasp an object and move it.

70. 2-Point Curvilinear Gripper has two fingers that close on the part. Movement is circular because the fingers are jointed from a single pivot point.
71. 2-Point Parallel Gripper has two fingers that close on the part which move in a straight line toward each other.

72. Zoom is used to zoom the view into and out of the robot layout.
73. Rotate allow you to view the layout from another point.
74. Pan only changes you view point in a two dimensional plane.
75. To Pan – make sure the change viewpoint tool is selected, move your cursor onto the layout, hold the ctrl key down and you will now be able to pan.

76. Four View Button splits screen into four screens.

77. Two views button splits screen into two screens

78. Switch Plane switches the plane that we are viewing.
79. In the two dimensional view you can only translate along the planes that you are not currently viewing.
80. Equalize view button makes all windows the same size.
81. Two ortho views button splits the screen into 2 two-dimensional views.
82. Two views button bring up two windows.
83. Emergency Stops – all robot work areas must have an emergency stop button that cuts power to everything.
84. Barricades – physical barriers are used to protect people from robots.
85. Light Curtains – this are photo electric barriers that shut system down and sound alarms when pentrated.

86. Safety mats – electric mats that turn off system when someone steps on them.
87. Signs and tape – used as warning.



Unit 2 – Robot Simulation (Pegasus) Teach Pendant Programming:(62)
Student Learning Outcomes:

1. Describe the function and operation of a robot program.
2. Describe how position points are recorded in robots memory.
3. Describe the operation of the command: PMOVE

4. Describe the operation of a robot program.
5. Describe the operation of the commands: LABEL and BRANCH
6. Understand the four ways to stop a servo robot.
7. Use the program commands: GRASP and RELEASE
8. Use the program commands: SPEED and DELAY

9. Describe three applications of robots in material handling.
10. Store and retrieve multiple robot programs in a robot controller.


Important Points:

1. Robot program is the information stored in a robot controllers memory the causes the root to perform a series of steps automatically.
2. Program sequence File contains the commands used to create the robots sequence of operation.
3. 150 commands are available for programming.

4. Points file stores the location of each point by storing each encoder value in memory.
5. Each point the point files has five values. Axis 1 to Axis 5.
6. To teach robot points – jog robot to certain position, record the position on the teach pendant.
7. Work Envelope serves as a guide when jogging the robot to certain points.

8. PREV key cause the display to show the previous point.
9. NEXT is used to display the next point

10. MOV is used to identify point to go to.

11. ENTER is used to execute mov.

12. Manufacturing Control Language (MCL) is the programming language used for robots.
13. PMOVE<number> stands for point move which tells the robot to move to a previously taught point.
14. Robot program consists of a program sequence file and a point file. The robot controller will read and perform each command in the sequence file.
15. Sequence files can be written in any order of robot movement.
16. The SCROLL key causes other menus in a particular grouping to be displayed.

17. The – key causes the menu to scroll backwards.

18. Line function allows you to go to a specific line in the program.
19. Interpreter window option display the program code and allows you to step through the program.

20. The interpreter window must be activated before a program is run.

21. LABEL<number> marks a position in the program.

22. Each label must be identified uniquely.
23. BRANCH<number> cause the program to jump over part of the instructions or repeat a set of instructions as necessary. (goto, label)

24. BRANCH to LABEL Number -  BRANCH 3       - where three is label 3.
25. Four ways of stopping robot.
26. Emergency stop pushbutton – immediately interrupts the robot.
27. HALT [F3] – immediate interruption of the robot in mid motion. Normal way of exiting the program.
28. PAUS [F2] – stops robot at end of current move and pauses the program.
29. BREAK [BREAK] stop the robot in mid motion.  Pressing [F2] RES will continue program.